Teenage pregnancy (%)

DefinitionPercentage of women aged 15-19 who are mothers or who have ever been pregnant. The percentage of women who are mothers at the time of the survey is a more restrictive definition.

Note that some of the surveys report this indicator as the percentage who have ever been pregnant of those WHO HAVE EVER HAD SEX. This is a different denominator to that used by the Demographic and Health Surveys, and the data can therefore not be directly compared.

ReferenceDepartment of Health, Medical Research Council & Measure DHS+. South Africa Demographic and Health Survey 1998, Full Report. Pretoria: National Department of Health; 2002.
Ref. URLhttp://www.doh.gov.za/facts/1998/sadhs98/
Detailspg 26-27
Keywords
Indicator Type: -> Health Status -> Reproductive Health -> Contraception and sexual behaviour

[Related Resources]

Indicator Data
View by [Ethnic] [Geographic (SA provinces)] [International]

ECFSGPKZNLPMPNCNWWCZA
Teenage pregnancy (%) [Definition]
1991 13.114.912.915.316.413.512.812.611.8[1] 14.6
1998 ever pregnant18.212.69.516.720.025.218.013.416.4[2] 16.4
1998 ever pregnant rural---------[3] 20.9
1998 ever pregnant urban---------[4] 12.5
1998 mothers14.88.48.913.814.918.815.211.013.7[5] 13.2
2002 NYRBS12.515.913.321.829.827.19.317.112.0[6] 19.1
2003 ever pregnant13.615.412.32.016.813.116.114.314.3[7] 11.9
2003 ever pregnant RHRU---------[8] 15.0
2003 mothers7.312.211.22.014.012.112.310.610.4[9] 9.4
2006 ever pregnant---------[10] 39.0
2008 NYRBS ever pregnant30.920.319.425.828.624.524.217.915.3[11] 24.4
2008 NYRBS mothers24.017.816.026.030.123.222.611.89.1[12] 21.9
2008 NiDS female 15-1913.918.910.419.911.216.713.910.117.1[13] 14.6
2008 NiDS mothers---------[14] 14.8
2010 NiDS female 15-1911.77.76.513.610.621.216.615.710.4[15] 11.7
2011 NYRBS <=13 ever pregnant---------[16] 38.0
2011 NYRBS =>19 ever pregnant---------[17] 35.8
2011 NYRBS Gr10 ever pregnant---------[18] 18.9
2011 NYRBS Gr11 ever pregnant---------[19] 26.1
2011 NYRBS Gr8 ever pregnant---------[20] 22.9
2011 NYRBS Gr9 ever pregnant---------[21] 18.4
2011 NYRBS age 14 ever pregnant---------[22] 9.2
2011 NYRBS age 15 ever pregnant---------[23] 10.1
2011 NYRBS age 16 ever pregnant---------[24] 15.0
2011 NYRBS age 17 ever pregnant---------[25] 19.0
2011 NYRBS age 18 ever pregnant---------[26] 25.3
2011 NYRBS ever pregnant18.015.717.232.826.418.824.822.417.6[27] 22.2
2011 NYRBS mothers15.413.311.928.223.115.418.416.913.5[28] 18.3
2011 ever pregnant---------[29] 19.2
2012 NiDS female 15-1914.57.412.014.110.515.216.210.16.7[30] 12.4
2014 GHS age 14-19---------[31] 5.6
2014 GHS age 15---------[32] 1.9
2014 GHS age 15-199.08.56.57.09.69.110.310.18.1[33] 8.0
2014 GHS age 16---------[34] 4.2
2014 GHS age 17---------[35] 4.8
2014 GHS age 18---------[36] 9.6
2014 GHS age 19---------[37] 11.9
EC: Eastern Cape  FS: Free State  GP: Gauteng  KZN: KwaZulu-Natal  LP: Limpopo  MP: Mpumalanga  NC: Northern Cape  NW: North West  WC: Western Cape  ZA: South Africa  

Notes and References

  1. Development Bank 1994: Erasmus J, editor. South Africa's nine provinces: A human development profile. Midrand: Development Bank of Southern Africa; 1994. Publication not available electronically. Organisation web site http://www.dbsa.org/
    Local copy: -
    Definition according to source is: Percentage of all live births during a specific year, to women younger than 20 years of age irrespective of their marital status. Table 24: Annexure A pg 90.
  2. SADHS 1998: Department of Health, Medical Research Council & Measure DHS+. South Africa Demographic and Health Survey 1998, Full Report. Pretoria: National Department of Health; 2002. http://www.doh.gov.za/facts/1998/sadhs98/
    Local copy: /indicators/SADHS_1998_Full.pdf
    Note that by age 19, the survey found that 35% of all teenagers have been pregnant or have had a child. Table 16 pg 27.
  3. SADHS 1998: Department of Health, Medical Research Council & Measure DHS+. South Africa Demographic and Health Survey 1998, Full Report. Pretoria: National Department of Health; 2002. http://www.doh.gov.za/facts/1998/sadhs98/
    Local copy: /indicators/SADHS_1998_Full.pdf
  4. SADHS 1998: Department of Health, Medical Research Council & Measure DHS+. South Africa Demographic and Health Survey 1998, Full Report. Pretoria: National Department of Health; 2002. http://www.doh.gov.za/facts/1998/sadhs98/
    Local copy: /indicators/SADHS_1998_Full.pdf
  5. SADHS 1998: Department of Health, Medical Research Council & Measure DHS+. South Africa Demographic and Health Survey 1998, Full Report. Pretoria: National Department of Health; 2002. http://www.doh.gov.za/facts/1998/sadhs98/
    Local copy: /indicators/SADHS_1998_Full.pdf
    Percentage of women aged 15-19 who are mothers at the time of the survey (more restrictive definition).
  6. NYRBS 2002: Reddy SP, Panday S, Swart D, Jinabhai CC, Amosun SL, James S, et al. Umthenthe Uhlaba Usamila The South African Youth Risk Behaviour Survey 2002. Cape Town: South African Medical Research Council; 2003. http://www.mrc.ac.za/healthpromotion/reports.htm
    Local copy: /indicators/Behaviour/NYRBS_2002.pdf
    Of those learners who had ever had sex
  7. SADHS 2003 (Preliminary): South Africa Demographic and Health Survey 2003. Preliminary Report. Pretoria: National Department of Health; 2004. http://www.doh.gov.za/
    Local copy: /indicators/SADHS_2003.pdf
    The estimates from this DHS are considered to be implausibly low and should not be used. Moultrie TA, McGrath N. Teenage fertility rates falling in South Africa. S Afr Med J 2007 Jun; 97(6): 442-443.
  8. HIV Youth 2003: Pettifor AE, Rees HV, Steffenson A, Hlongwa-Madikizela L, MacPhail C, Vermaak K, et al. HIV and sexual behaviour among young South Africans: a national survey of 15-24 year olds. Johannesburg: Reproductive Health Research Unit; 2003. http://www.lovelife.org.za/corporate/index.php/download_file/view/99/274/
    Local copy: /indicators/HIV_AIDS/HIV_YouthSurvey_2003.pdf
    33% of women age 15-19 who report ever having had sex reported ever having been pregnant, while 15% of all surveyed reported ever having been pregnant - the latter is more comparable to the SADHS indicator definition. The source includes more detailed data on pregnancy by age.
  9. SADHS 2003 (Preliminary): South Africa Demographic and Health Survey 2003. Preliminary Report. Pretoria: National Department of Health; 2004. http://www.doh.gov.za/
    Local copy: /indicators/SADHS_2003.pdf
    The estimates from this DHS are considered to be implausibly low and should not be used. Moultrie TA, McGrath N. Teenage fertility rates falling in South Africa. S Afr Med J 2007 Jun; 97(6): 442-443.
  10. Kaiser HIV Awareness: Young South Africans, Broadcast media, and HIV/AIDS Awareness: Results of a National Survey. The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation; 2007. http://www.kff.org/
    Local copy: -
    Of those who are sexually active.
  11. NYRBS 2008: Reddy SP, James S, Sewpaul R, Koopman F, Funani NI, Sifunda S, Josie J, Masuka P, Kambaran NS, Omardien RG. Umthente Uhlaba Usamila - The South African Youth Risk Behaviour Survey 2008. Cape Town: South African Medical Research Council; 2010. http://www.mrc.ac.za/healthpromotion/healthpromotion.htm
    Local copy: /indicators/Behaviour/NYRBS_2008.pdf
    Learners in grades 8-11. Of those who have ever had sex.
  12. NYRBS 2008: Reddy SP, James S, Sewpaul R, Koopman F, Funani NI, Sifunda S, Josie J, Masuka P, Kambaran NS, Omardien RG. Umthente Uhlaba Usamila - The South African Youth Risk Behaviour Survey 2008. Cape Town: South African Medical Research Council; 2010. http://www.mrc.ac.za/healthpromotion/healthpromotion.htm
    Local copy: /indicators/Behaviour/NYRBS_2008.pdf
    Learners in grades 8-11. Of those who have ever had sex.
  13. NiDS Wave 1 v5.2: Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit. National Income Dynamics Study 2008, Wave 1 [dataset]. Version 5.2. Cape Town: Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit [producer]. Cape Town: DataFirst [distributor]; 2014. http://www.nids.uct.ac.za/
    Local copy: -
    Based on answering ‘Yes’ to the survey question ‘Ever given birth?’
  14. NiDS Demography Wave 1: Moultrie T, Dorrington R. Demography: Analysis of the NIDS Wave 1 Dataset. Discussion Paper No 9. Cape Town: Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit (SALDRU); 2009. http://www.nids.uct.ac.za/home/index.php?/Nids-Documentation/discussion-papers.html
    Local copy: -
    Proportion of women who have ever given birth.
  15. NiDS Wave 2 v2.2: Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit. National Income Dynamics Study 2010-2011, Wave 2 [dataset]. Version 2.2. Cape Town: Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit [producer]. Cape Town: DataFirst [distributor]; 2014. http://www.nids.uct.ac.za/
    Local copy: -
    Based on answering ‘Yes’ to the survey question ‘Ever given birth?’
  16. NYRBS 2011: Omardien R, Reddy S, James S, Kambaran N, Sifunda S, Ellahebokus A, et al. Umthente Uhlaba Usamila - The 3rd South African National Youth Risk Behaviour Survey 2011. Cape Town: South African Medical Research Council; 2013. http://www.hsrc.ac.za/en/research-data/view/6874
    Local copy: /indicators/Behaviour/NYRBS_2011.pdf
    Learner age 13 or under Of those who ever had sex.
  17. NYRBS 2011: Omardien R, Reddy S, James S, Kambaran N, Sifunda S, Ellahebokus A, et al. Umthente Uhlaba Usamila - The 3rd South African National Youth Risk Behaviour Survey 2011. Cape Town: South African Medical Research Council; 2013. http://www.hsrc.ac.za/en/research-data/view/6874
    Local copy: /indicators/Behaviour/NYRBS_2011.pdf
    Learners age 19 or over. Of those who have ever had sex.
  18. NYRBS 2011: Omardien R, Reddy S, James S, Kambaran N, Sifunda S, Ellahebokus A, et al. Umthente Uhlaba Usamila - The 3rd South African National Youth Risk Behaviour Survey 2011. Cape Town: South African Medical Research Council; 2013. http://www.hsrc.ac.za/en/research-data/view/6874
    Local copy: /indicators/Behaviour/NYRBS_2011.pdf
    Learners in Grade 10. Of those who have ever had sex
  19. NYRBS 2011: Omardien R, Reddy S, James S, Kambaran N, Sifunda S, Ellahebokus A, et al. Umthente Uhlaba Usamila - The 3rd South African National Youth Risk Behaviour Survey 2011. Cape Town: South African Medical Research Council; 2013. http://www.hsrc.ac.za/en/research-data/view/6874
    Local copy: /indicators/Behaviour/NYRBS_2011.pdf
    Learners in Grade 11. Of those who have ever had sex
  20. NYRBS 2011: Omardien R, Reddy S, James S, Kambaran N, Sifunda S, Ellahebokus A, et al. Umthente Uhlaba Usamila - The 3rd South African National Youth Risk Behaviour Survey 2011. Cape Town: South African Medical Research Council; 2013. http://www.hsrc.ac.za/en/research-data/view/6874
    Local copy: /indicators/Behaviour/NYRBS_2011.pdf
    Learners in Grade 8. Of those who have ever had sex.
  21. NYRBS 2011: Omardien R, Reddy S, James S, Kambaran N, Sifunda S, Ellahebokus A, et al. Umthente Uhlaba Usamila - The 3rd South African National Youth Risk Behaviour Survey 2011. Cape Town: South African Medical Research Council; 2013. http://www.hsrc.ac.za/en/research-data/view/6874
    Local copy: /indicators/Behaviour/NYRBS_2011.pdf
    Learners in Grade 9. Of those who have ever had sex.
  22. NYRBS 2011: Omardien R, Reddy S, James S, Kambaran N, Sifunda S, Ellahebokus A, et al. Umthente Uhlaba Usamila - The 3rd South African National Youth Risk Behaviour Survey 2011. Cape Town: South African Medical Research Council; 2013. http://www.hsrc.ac.za/en/research-data/view/6874
    Local copy: /indicators/Behaviour/NYRBS_2011.pdf
    Learners age 14. Of those who have ever had sex.
  23. NYRBS 2011: Omardien R, Reddy S, James S, Kambaran N, Sifunda S, Ellahebokus A, et al. Umthente Uhlaba Usamila - The 3rd South African National Youth Risk Behaviour Survey 2011. Cape Town: South African Medical Research Council; 2013. http://www.hsrc.ac.za/en/research-data/view/6874
    Local copy: /indicators/Behaviour/NYRBS_2011.pdf
    Learners age 15. Of those who have ever had sex.
  24. NYRBS 2011: Omardien R, Reddy S, James S, Kambaran N, Sifunda S, Ellahebokus A, et al. Umthente Uhlaba Usamila - The 3rd South African National Youth Risk Behaviour Survey 2011. Cape Town: South African Medical Research Council; 2013. http://www.hsrc.ac.za/en/research-data/view/6874
    Local copy: /indicators/Behaviour/NYRBS_2011.pdf
    Learners age 16. Of those who have ever had sex.
  25. NYRBS 2011: Omardien R, Reddy S, James S, Kambaran N, Sifunda S, Ellahebokus A, et al. Umthente Uhlaba Usamila - The 3rd South African National Youth Risk Behaviour Survey 2011. Cape Town: South African Medical Research Council; 2013. http://www.hsrc.ac.za/en/research-data/view/6874
    Local copy: /indicators/Behaviour/NYRBS_2011.pdf
    Learners age 17. Of those who have ever had sex
  26. NYRBS 2011: Omardien R, Reddy S, James S, Kambaran N, Sifunda S, Ellahebokus A, et al. Umthente Uhlaba Usamila - The 3rd South African National Youth Risk Behaviour Survey 2011. Cape Town: South African Medical Research Council; 2013. http://www.hsrc.ac.za/en/research-data/view/6874
    Local copy: /indicators/Behaviour/NYRBS_2011.pdf
    Learners age 18. Of those who have ever had sex.
  27. NYRBS 2011: Omardien R, Reddy S, James S, Kambaran N, Sifunda S, Ellahebokus A, et al. Umthente Uhlaba Usamila - The 3rd South African National Youth Risk Behaviour Survey 2011. Cape Town: South African Medical Research Council; 2013. http://www.hsrc.ac.za/en/research-data/view/6874
    Local copy: /indicators/Behaviour/NYRBS_2011.pdf
    Of those who have ever had sex.
  28. NYRBS 2011: Omardien R, Reddy S, James S, Kambaran N, Sifunda S, Ellahebokus A, et al. Umthente Uhlaba Usamila - The 3rd South African National Youth Risk Behaviour Survey 2011. Cape Town: South African Medical Research Council; 2013. http://www.hsrc.ac.za/en/research-data/view/6874
    Local copy: /indicators/Behaviour/NYRBS_2011.pdf
    Of those who have ever had sex.
  29. McHunu et al. 2013: McHunu G, Peltzer K, Tutshana B, Seutlwadi L. Adolescent pregnancy and associated factors in South African youth. African Health Sciences. 2013;12(4). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3598281/
    Local copy: -
    LoveLife impact study. Female youth (aged 8-24) who had ever had an adolescent pregnancy (i.e. fell pregnant at age 12-19 years).
  30. NiDS Wave 3 v1.2: Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit. National Income Dynamics Study 2012, Wave 3 [dataset]. Version 1.2. Cape Town: Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit [producer]. Cape Town: DataFirst [distributor]; 2014 http://www.nids.uct.ac.za/
    Local copy: -
    Based on answering ‘Yes’ to the survey question ‘Ever given birth?’
  31. Stats SA GHS 2014: General Household Survey 2014. Statistical release P0318. Pretoria: Statistics South Africa; 2015. http://www.statssa.gov.za
    Local copy: -
    Survey asked females whether they were pregnant during the 12 months before the survey (different to the usual definition of ever having been pregnant while aged 15-19).
  32. Stats SA GHS 2014: General Household Survey 2014. Statistical release P0318. Pretoria: Statistics South Africa; 2015. http://www.statssa.gov.za
    Local copy: -
    Survey asked females whether they were pregnant during the 12 months before the survey (different to the usual definition of ever having been pregnant while aged 15-19).
  33. Stats SA GHS 2014: General Household Survey 2014. Statistical release P0318. Pretoria: Statistics South Africa; 2015. http://www.statssa.gov.za
    Local copy: -
    Survey asked females whether they were pregnant during the 12 months before the survey (different to the usual definition of ever having been pregnant while aged 15-19).
  34. Stats SA GHS 2014: General Household Survey 2014. Statistical release P0318. Pretoria: Statistics South Africa; 2015. http://www.statssa.gov.za
    Local copy: -
    Survey asked females whether they were pregnant during the 12 months before the survey (different to the usual definition of ever having been pregnant while aged 15-19).
  35. Stats SA GHS 2014: General Household Survey 2014. Statistical release P0318. Pretoria: Statistics South Africa; 2015. http://www.statssa.gov.za
    Local copy: -
    Survey asked females whether they were pregnant during the 12 months before the survey (different to the usual definition of ever having been pregnant while aged 15-19).
  36. Stats SA GHS 2014: General Household Survey 2014. Statistical release P0318. Pretoria: Statistics South Africa; 2015. http://www.statssa.gov.za
    Local copy: -
    Survey asked females whether they were pregnant during the 12 months before the survey (different to the usual definition of ever having been pregnant while aged 15-19).
  37. Stats SA GHS 2014: General Household Survey 2014. Statistical release P0318. Pretoria: Statistics South Africa; 2015. http://www.statssa.gov.za
    Local copy: -
    Survey asked females whether they were pregnant during the 12 months before the survey (different to the usual definition of ever having been pregnant while aged 15-19).